Introduction: Acute pyelonephritis is a common disease in children leading to permanent renal
function impairment due to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid
(DMSA) scintigraphy for detecting the early renal parenchymal damage in children with the first
episode of acute pyelonephritis (APN).
Patients and Methods: This study was conducted among 161 hospitalized children with the
first clinically episode of APN from January 2008 to April 2013 in pediatric clinical research of
development center in Qom, Iran. DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte
sedimentation rate (ESR), urine analysis and culture were performed in all patients. DMSA renal
scan and voiding cystourethrogram(VCUG) was done within 15 days and one month after the
diagnosis of APN using the standard protocol, respectively.
Results: Children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis aged 1 month to 12 years were
enrolled in this study. There were no statistically significant correlations between initial decreased
uptake detected by DMSA renal scan with age, gender, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. The
positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of diminished uptake on DMSA renal scans for
detecting the presence of VUR on VCUG were (43.2%) and (93.3%), respectively.
Conclusion: Children with a normal DMSA renal scan during their the first episode of UTI rarely
have VUR. Avoidance of VCUG in children with negative DMSA renal scans could significantly
eliminate the use of this potentially traumatic test.