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Submitted: 05 Apr 2021
Accepted: 14 May 2021
ePublished: 01 Jun 2021
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J Nephropharmacol. 2021;10(2): e22.
doi: 10.34172/npj.2021.22
  Abstract View: 33
  PDF Download: 7

Review

Immune-related adverse kidney events by immune checkpoint inhibitors; a narrative review on current studies

Tella Sadighpour 1,2 * ORCID logo, Celeste Cagnazzo 3 ORCID logo, Shahrzad Alimohammadi 4,5 ORCID logo, Anahita Emami 6 ORCID logo, Azadeh Khayyat 7, Mohammad Ali EsmaeilPour 8

1 Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
2 American University of Antigua, College of Medicine, Antigua and Barbuda
3 Research and Clinical Development Unit, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Unit, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
4 Doctoral School of Molecular Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
5 Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
6 Independent Researcher, 12 Leadenhall Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
7 Independent Researcher 4246 Graveley St., Burnaby, BC, Canada
8 Adventhealth Graduate Medical Education, Center for Collaborative Research, Orlando, Florida, USA
*Corresponding author: Tella Sadighpour, Email: Tella.90s@gmail.com, tsadi003@fiu.edu, tellas@auamed.net

Abstract

Chemotherapy-associated renal injury is considered one of the major concerns among nephrological and oncological practice. The use of novel anti-neoplastic therapies that target carcinomas has helped in the detection of this form of renal injury. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are a group of monoclonal antibodies targeting inhibitory receptors that exist on tumor cells and T cells. ICPIs are able to suppress tumors that might have escaped from the immune surveillance. Meanwhile, although ICPIs have shown promising efficacy in cancer treatment, their immune-related side effects limit their widespread use in cancer therapy schedules. One of the major side effects limiting ICPIs’ usage is nephrotoxicity. Glomerular disease, acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) are considered different infusion-related adverse events. Infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and plasma cells, as well as interstitial inflammation and edema, leading to acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN). It is conceivable that the rupture of self-tolerance by ICPIs induces an autoimmune reaction against some specific self-antigens in the organs including kidneys. The exact nature of the antigen is unclear; however, it is possible that it is found in the renal tubular cells, as indicated by a greater frequency of ATIN in kidney biopsies. The current review paper discusses the relationship between ICPIs therapy and kidney disorders or more specifically, their possible role in renal damage along with renal toxicity profile in the setting of ICPIs treatment.
Keywords: Immunotherapy, Glomerular filtration rate, Checkpoint inhibitors, Glomerulonephritis, Acute interstitial nephritis, Acute tubular necrosis, Acute renal failure, Immune-related adverse events, Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Patients treating with immune-checkpoint-inhibitors presenting with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis display a lengthy latency phase following initiation of these substances. Studies showed a milder form of acute kidney injury with milder serum creatinine improvement in contrast to acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in the background of other drugs.

Please cite this paper as: Sadighpour T, Cagnazzo C, Alimohammadi S, Emami A, Khayyat A, EsmaeilPour MA. Immune-related adverse kidney events by immune checkpoint inhibitors; a narrative review on current studies. J Nephropharmacol. 2021;10(2):e22. DOI: 10.34172/npj.2021.22.

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