Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease associated with the disorders in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids that affect insulin action.
Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of Eryngium caucasicum (Eryngo) extract alone and in combination with metformin (MET) in adult male diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats randomly were designated into five groups (n = 6) including; group I (Control); rats received normal saline by gavage for 15 days. Group II; rats received a single injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Group III; rats, after STZ injection, received 30 mg/kg of MET by gavage for 15 days. Group IV; rats, after STZ injection, received 30 ml/kg of Eryngo extract by gavage for 15 days. Group V; rats, after STZ injection, received the combination of MET and Eryngo extract at a dose of 30 mg/kg by gavage for 15 days. The kidneys were removed immediately after sacrificing and prepared for morphological examination. Kidney sections were examined for the intensity of kidney damage (vacuolization, flattening, degeneration, and necrosis).
Results: Significant differences were observed in types of morphologic injury to renal tubular cells between groups (P < 0.05). Eryngo extract had more protective effect against kidney damage due to DM compared to MET and the combination of MET+Eryngo. Additionally, in pairwise comparisons of groups, the relationship between group II (DM group) and group IV (DM + Eryngo) was significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The administration of MET and Eryngo extract alone and their combination ameliorate types of morphologic injury to renal tubular cells in diabetic rats, however, the renoprotective effect of Eryngo extract alone is more remarkable.