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Submitted: 23 Oct 2021
Accepted: 03 Dec 2021
ePublished: 10 Jan 2022
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J Nephropharmacol. 2022;11(2): e10458.
doi: 10.34172/npj.2022.10458
  Abstract View: 2454
  PDF Download: 288

Review

Ameliorative effects of pirfenidone in chronic kidney disease

Samad Ghodrati 1,2 ORCID logo, Yeganeh Ragati Haghi 3 ORCID logo, Jyoti Baharani 4 ORCID logo, Akshaya Joseph 5 ORCID logo, Niloufar Alimohammadi 6 ORCID logo, Farzad Koosha 7 ORCID logo, Leila Mostafavi 8 ORCID logo, Aiyoub Pezeshgi 1,2* ORCID logo

1 Zanjan Metabolic Disease Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
2 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
3 Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences - Worcester Campus: Worcester, MA, USA
4 University Hospitals Birmingham, B95SS, UK
5 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
6 Department of Medicine, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
7 Department of Oral Biology and Pathology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY, USA
8 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding author: Aiyoub Pezeshgi, Email: , Email: dr.a.pezeshki@gmail.com

Abstract

Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and plays a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of CKD to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The molecular and cellular substances of kidney fibrosis include growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), alongside cytokines (like interleukin-1b) and metalloproteinases. Therefore, these factors can be evaluated as possible targets for anti-fibrotic agents. Among the mediators of fibrosis, TGF-β is the dominant facilitator of renal fibrosis that induces ECM construction and accumulation. Numerous studies have focused on the inhibition of TGF-β and its downstream targets for the treatment of renal disease. Abolition of TGF-β mRNA expression was found to be the mechanism of anti-fibrotic drug, pirfenidone, in the heart and kidneys of diabetic rats. Various investigations have shown the impact of pirfenidone in diminishing kidney fibrosis, with studies containing patients diagnosed with subtotal nephrectomy, diabetic kidney disease and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), administered drugs such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, doxorubicin and vanadate. Several therapeutic drugs for fibrosis reduce only one of the oxidative, inflammatory or profibrogenic markers, while pirfenidone targets all three of these markers and therefore, seems to be a particularly valuable drug.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Various studies have shown the impact of pirfenidone in diminishing kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.

Please cite this paper as: Ghodrati S, Ragati Haghi Y, Baharani J, Joseph A, Alimohammadi N, Koosha F, Mostafavi L, Pezeshgi A. Ameliorative effects of pirfenidone in chronic kidney disease. J Nephropharmacol. 2022;11(2):e10458. DOI: 10.34172/ npj.2021.10458.

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